Личное мнение: Что ждет оценочную сферу в 2018 году?

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Личное мнение: Что ждет оценочную сферу в 2018 году?
Чиновники от государства решили провести «чистку» в оценочной отрасли. В первую очередь это связано с огромными недочетами при проведении массовой кадастровой оценки объектов недвижимости на территории всей страны и, что удивляет оценочное сообщество, по просьбе самих оценщиков.

В 2014 году был принят законопроект о переходе на налогообложение (налог на имущество) физических лиц и организаций по кадастровой стоимости, а не по инвентаризационной. При этом, закон в полную силу начинает работать только с 2017 года.

Кадастровая стоимость рассчитывается методами массовой оценки, т.е. задается массив объектов (например, все земельные участки в регионе с категорией «земли сельскохозяйственного назначения» в количестве 50 тыс. объектов) и производится математическое моделирование стоимости каждого участка. В теории кадастровая стоимость должна быть близка к рыночной, однако на практике не учитываются индивидуальные особенности объектов, что приводит к искажению результатов. При проведении такой оценки существует 2 главные проблемы:

  • Крайне низкий уровень предоставляемой исходной информации;
  • Компетенция исполнителя.

Первый вопрос относится больше к заказчику оценку, остановимся на втором вопросе подробнее. В связи с тем, что заказчиком кадастровой оценки является государство, исполнитель выбирается на торгах по одному единственному критерию – наименьшая цена. Таким образом, чаще всего кадастровую оценку проводили не самые опытные компании, что привело к большому количеству исков по оспариванию кадастровой стоимости. В Санкт-Петербурге оценку недвижимости проводила государственная структура ГУИОН и, по нашему мнению, установленная кадастровая стоимости по большей части объектов близка к реальности. Данная структура имеет опыт в проведении подобных работ, обладает массивами статистической информации по рынку недвижимости и при заключении договоров на оценку не демпингует. Результатом является качественно выполненная работа.

Например, по данным статистики Росреестра за период с 01.01.2017 по 31.08.2017 в судах РФ инициировано 7 085 споров в отношении 12 875 объектов недвижимости. По 92% объектов принято положительное решение, что привело к снижению налоговой базы по данным объектам с 627 млрд. руб., 360 млрд. руб. Ужаснувшись такой статистикой, профильные министерства пришли к выводу, что такое огромное количество споров связано только с некомпетентностью оценщиков. Таким образом, в 2016 году было принято решение провести единый квалификационный экзамен, который по логике отсеет некомпетентных оценщиков. Самое важное было установить крайний срок – это 01 апреля 2018 года. После судного дня оценщик, не сдавший экзамен, автоматически исключается из СРО, в которой он сейчас состоит, и теряет право работать по специальности.

Идея вполне интересная, только фактически она направлена на передел рынка. Самые странные моменты в экзамене:

  • Самое основное — закрытая база вопросов и задач;
  • Некорректно составленные вопросы, целью которых является запутать сдающего;
  • Имеется 3 направления для сдачи «оценка недвижимости», «оценка оборудования», «оценка бизнеса». При этом, последнее направление не поглощает остальные. Крайне сложно представить бизнес, при оценке которого не потребуется аттестат по другим направлениям.
  • Принимает экзамен государственная структура, расположенная в Москве и не имеющая филиалов в регионах;
  • Прием экзамена начался фактически на 1.5 месяца позже, что не повлияло на дедлайн 01.04.2018 г.;

По итогам месяца сдачи количество успешно сдавших оценщиков составило 364 человека. В первых рядах сдают наиболее активные члены сообщества и по нескольким направлениям. Фактически количество сдавших специалистов не превышает 300 человек. В Российской Федерации на данный момент порядка 20 тыс. оценщиков. Даже если представить, что экзаменатор добавит акселерации процессу, физически всем оценщикам сложно пройти экзамен даже 1 раз.

В первых публикациях о данном экзамене говорили, что после всего очистится не более 50% от сообщества. Но складывающаяся ситуация говорит о том, что в оценке может остаться порядка 10% от сообщества.

К каким последствиям это может привести:

  • Произойдет укрупнение оценочных компаний для «выживания»;
  • На рынке большое количество самозанятых специалистов и оценочных компаний среднего размера. Об этих компаниях можно будет забыть, особенно в регионах;
  • Конкуренция снизится, стоимость оценочных услуг возрастет для всех потребителей. Ценность в компании будет иметь не исполнитель (опытный и практикующий эксперт), а просто подписант (возможно студент, успешно зазубривший все вопросы и сдавший экзамен);
  • Особенно негативная ситуация будет в регионах, где и так отсутствуют стабильная работа. И если раньше оценщики соглашались на низкую оплату (довольно часто демпинговали на государственных закупках), то после 01.04.2018 г. оценщиков в регионах не останется. Данную работу будут выполнять уже другие специалисты с расценками в разы выше.

Таким образом, значительным плюсом для «выживших» компаний станет значительный рост стоимости услуг. В каком именно месте выигрывает государство? Оставим этот вопрос без ответа.

Автор: Дмитрий Соломников

Источник: ocenchik.ru

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