Виды крепежа для возведения каркасных домов

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Строительство частного дома — непростая задача. Сначала нужно приобрести участок земли в том месте, которое будет устраивать по многим параметрам всю вашу семью (например, наличие поблизости леса или водоема, развитая инфраструктура садоводства, подведенные инженерные коммуникации и т.п.). Затем следует определиться с пятном застройки с учетом существующих нормативов и правил, после этого выбрать проект дома и согласовать его в соответствующих инстанциях, и понять, из чего будет строиться ваше жилище. Следующий этап — закупка всех необходимых строительных материалов, инструментов и сопутствующих крепежных элементов. Как показывает практика, всё чаще владельцы загородных участков предпочитают устанавливать на своей территории каркасные дома. Такого рода конструкции считаются легковозводимыми, и при этом весьма надежными. Сборку каркаса нужно проводить грамотно и аккуратно, используя специальный крепеж, который будет придавать остову дополнительную прочность. О нем мы и поговорим в сегодняшней статье.

Виды крепежа для возведения каркасных домов
Всё чаще владельцы загородных участков предпочитают возводить каркасные дома

Популярность каркасных домов обусловлена множеством различных факторов. Благодаря современным технологиям строительства они практически сравнялись по степени надежности и длительности эксплуатации со своими бетонными и кирпичными аналогами. Что же касается преимуществ таких домов, то к ним смело можно отнести их относительно небольшую стоимость, высокую скорость проведения работ, отсутствие необходимости в сооружении основательного, массивного фундамента. Однако не стоит забывать о придании каркасу дополнительной прочности. В этом вам поможет соединительный крепеж, который, вдобавок ко всему, может еще и упростить и ускорить процесс сборки строительных конструкций.

Итак, соединительный крепеж представляет собой перфорированные детали из металла (толщиной 2-4 мм), имеющие определенную форму. Это могут быть:

— пластины;

— уголки;

— коннекторы;

— держатели;

— опоры балок;

— «башмаки» для несущих колонн и стоек.

Каждый из перечисленных видов крепежа выпускается в различных модификациях. Они могут дифференцироваться по габаритам, имеющейся перфорации и по наличию дополнительных ребер жесткости. В обязательном порядке на них наносится защитный слой, предотвращающий появление коррозии на деталях (для этого используется полимерно-порошковая покраска, цинкование или грунтование). При выборе крепежа, в первую очередь, обращайте внимание на предельно допустимую нагрузку, которую он способен выдержать во время эксплуатации, и на его назначение. Затем смотрите на перфорацию — именно она определяет, какой толщины гвозди и болты можно использовать, а также их количество.

Виды крепежа для возведения каркасных домов
Для надежной фиксации всех важных узлов каркасного дома используйте специальный крепеж

Рассмотрим каждый из видов крепежа отдельно.

Крепежные пластины являются одними из наиболее часто используемых элементов. Без них не обойтись, когда возникает необходимость надежно зафиксировать соединения деревянных фрагментов на стыках (например, при изготовлении крыши). Особенно они пригодятся, когда речь идет о соединениях, которые испытывают определённые нагрузки на растяжение. Применяют их следующим образом: пластина накладывается на место стыка с обеих сторон и плотно стягивается гвоздями и болтами, которые подбираются строго под размер отверстий. Только в этом случае ваше соединение окажется прочным, надежным, и при этом не появится риск расщепления деревянных конструкций.

Крепежные уголки — не менее популярный вид металлических фиксаторов. Их используют для укреплений угловых соединений (стропила крыши, стены и т.п.). Они бывают обычные и усиленные ребрами жесткости. Во втором случае уголки оказываются значительно более устойчивыми к нагрузкам на изгиб. Если перед вами стоит задача соединить, например, между собой стены или ферму крыши с верхним стягивающим брусом, то без крепежных уголков не обойтись. Нужно будет наложить металлоизделие на соединение с обеих сторон и стянуть гвоздями и болтами.

Коннекторы являются особым соединительным видом крепежа, который помогает собирать сложные конструкции, состоящие из трех и более элементов. В основном речь идет об узловых соединениях в фермах крыш, перекрывающих пролеты в 7 и более метров. Они становятся более надежными и прочными. Коннекторы — это пластины (или — реже — лента) с расположенными на них игольчатыми гвоздями заданной конфигурации. Этими гвоздями их впрессовывают в деревянную основу поперек волокон сразу с обеих сторон соединения.

Виды крепежа для возведения каркасных домов
Крепеж может быть выполнен в виде пластины, уголка, коннектора, опоры балки, держателя или башмака для несущих колонн и стоек

Опоры балок и держатели обычно используются во время работы с перекрытиями. Они очень надежны, способны выдержать серьезную нагрузку на растяжение. Различия их заключаются в том, что применение держателям находят в процессе строительства, когда нужно зафиксировать балку перекрытия на стене или на другой балке, а опорами пользуются для того, чтобы поставить балку на стену в уже построенном здании. Опоры бывают как универсальными, подходящими для фиксации балок любого сечения, так и специализированными. Держатели выпускают право- и левосторонние; к деревянной основе их прибивают гвоздями. При работе с опорами балок каждое соединение укрепляют с обеих сторон гвоздями и болтами.

Башмаки для несущих колонн и стоек монтируют сразу на фундамент либо во время его заливки, либо закрепив на уже готовом основании болтами. Они могут иметь регулировку по высоте и вращаться вокруг своей оси.

Источник: pro-n.ru

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