От пиявок до хлороформа. Чем богат наш водопровод?

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Еженедельник «Аргументы и Факты» № 37 13/09/2017

80% водопроводной воды на Земле загрязнено пластиком, пишет британская «Гардиан».

От пиявок до хлороформа. Чем богат наш водопровод?

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Больше всего пластика в воде в США. О России в исследовании ничего не сказано. Зато мы сами знаем, что из кранов в г. Могоча Забайкальского края вываливались пиявки, а в г. Тайга Кемеровской области из-за ядовитой воды летом ввели режим ЧС — в ней оказалось слишком много марганца. Раны марганцовкой можно обрабатывать, а внутрь марганец употреблять — чревато для печени, желудка и мозга. В марте горожане даже выставили у здания горадминистрации бутылки с мутной жижей. Но всё без толку. Сейчас глава города Ю. Шелковников и руководство водоканала — фигуранты уголовного дела. Их подозревают в сокрытии загрязнения воды.

От пиявок до хлороформа. Чем богат наш водопровод?

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Химический бульон

«Только 62% населения России потребляют качественную воду», — сообщает правительственная «Стратегия развития ЖКХ». Свежие данные Роспотребнадзора, которые запросил «АиФ», тоже не порадовали. В Калмыкии 72% взятых в водопроводе проб не соответствовали СанПиН, в Еврейской АО — 66%, в Новгородской области — 55%. По микробиологии (то есть найдены вредные микробы) самое низкое качество воды в Ингушетии, Приморском крае, Карачаево-Черкесии и Смоленской области. А в водопроводах ЯНАО, Свердловской и Астраханской областей даже обнаружили паразитов. В 10 регионах вода напоминает химический бульон. В Приморском крае, ХМАО, Томской и Свердловской областях зашкаливает содержание кремния, в той же Свердловской, а ещё в Калужской и Курганской — бора и лития. В водопроводах также встречаются стронций, хлороформ, фтор. Впрочем, есть регионы, где воду можно без опаски пить из-под крана, — это Санкт-Петербург, Москва, Севастополь, Адыгея, Курская область. Но у 6,5% жителей страны вообще нет централизованного водоснабжения. Они пользуются колодцами и родниками, а там, по данным Роспотребнадзора, «качество воды ухудшилось по всем показателям».

Причин у этой беды несколько: грязные источники (15% не соответствуют санитарным требованиям), плохая очистка и водоподготовка (у 16% водопроводов нет комплекса очистных или обеззараживающих сооружений), гнилые трубы.

«Сети начали укладывать после Второй мировой войны, затем — во время массового строительства при Хрущёве. Использовались не самые качественные и долговечные стальные трубы, которые до сих пор лежат в некоторых регионах, — говорит заместитель исполнительного директора Российской ассоциации водоснабжения и водоотведения Георгий Самбурский. — В замене нуждается 50% сетей. Это огромный объём, учитывая, что общая протяжённость — 763 тыс. км (это 19 экваторов!). Очистные сооружения тоже надо модернизировать, но денег на это нет».

Что делает государство?

Этот вопрос «АиФ» адресовал Минстрою. «Для модернизации объектов водоснабжения и водоотведения привлекаются частные инвестиции, заключаются концессионные соглашения (концессия — это форма государственно-частного партнёрства. — Ред.), — ответили в ведомстве. — Сегодня в России реализуется 503 концессии в отношении объектов водоснабжения на 88 млрд руб. Например, в Волгоградской области действует крупнейшая концессия в сфере водоснабжения и водоотведения в Европе — объём частных инвестиций составит 58 млрд руб. Есть примеры и небольших концессионных соглашений, благодаря которым улучшаются качество воды и водоснабжение поселений. В Московской области планируется построить и модернизировать 100 объектов водоснабжения. В Махачкале запущены новый водовод и сооружения водоподготовки».

От пиявок до хлороформа. Чем богат наш водопровод?
Как сделать воду из-под крана безопасней? Инфографика

Подробнее

«Если из вашего крана потекла плохая вода — стала пахнуть, потемнела, ухудшился её вкус, не пейте её и сообщите об этом в местный Роспотребнадзор, — советует Георгий Самбурский. — Впрочем, иногда бывают небольшие проблемы, например, превышение какого-то элемента, и справиться с этим вполне может домашний фильтр. Но надо знать, от чего конкретно очищать воду. Для этого тоже стоит обратиться в Роспотребнадзор — зачастую информация о качестве воды размещается на сайте регионального отделения ведомства».

Источник: aif.ru

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