Ремонт венцов загородного дома: 4 основных способа

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Строительство загородного дома — ответственное и серьезное мероприятие. Требуется ли вам простая летняя постройка или же монументальная «крепость», в качестве основы для нее в равной степени подойдёт кирпич, шлакоблоки, газобетон… Однако одним из наиболее популярных вариантов, использующихся испокон веков и до наших дней, остается всё-таки дерево. Помимо экологичности, этот материал обладает еще множеством неоспоримых достоинств, благодаря которым на протяжении многих столетий люди предпочитают селиться именно в деревянных домах. К сожалению, древесина, как и любой другой материал, подвержена естественному износу и старению.

Ремонт венцов загородного дома: 4 основных способа
Древесина, несмотря на множество неоспоримых достоинств, всё равно со временем неизбежно стареет и подвергается естественному износу

Несмотря на большой ассортимент всевозможных современных средств для защиты древесины (имеются в виду специальные антибактериальные, антипиреновые, противогрибковые пропитки и обработки), рано или поздно наступает момент, когда откладывать ремонт деревянного дома становится просто невозможно. Своё пагубное влияние на него оказывают негативные факторы окружающей среды, такие как дождь, снег, ветер, ультрафиолет, температурные перепады. Если речь идет о внешних повреждениях, например, отделочного слоя, то ситуацию нельзя назвать критичной. Однако когда закладные бревна и венцы строения начинают разрушаться, в них заводится плесень и грибок, необходимо принимать срочные меры. Такими мерами становится либо локальный (частичный) ремонт, либо тотальная замена закладных.

Для правильного и грамотного проведения ремонтных работ следует установить первопричину повреждения древесины. Вам понадобится провести визуальный осмотр. Обращайте внимание на потемневшие участки, в которых с большой долей вероятности завелись плесневелые грибки: их срочно нужно ликвидировать.

Но не только визуальный осмотр поможет разобраться в ситуации. При помощи киянки совершите простукивание дома: если звук окажется глухим, значит, внутри деревянной основы завелась гниль.

Кроме плесени и гнили древесину могут повреждать жуки-древоточцы. Они оставляют заметные, хоть и мелкие, ходы. За весьма короткий период эти неприятные насекомые способны почти полностью разрушить даже самое внушительное по размерам бревно.

Помимо венцов дома, неплохо будет еще осмотреть его фундамент. Если на нем появились заметные трещины, следует задуматься о безотлагательных реставрационных работах.

Ремонт венцов загородного дома: 4 основных способа
При проведении работ по частичной замене венцов деревянные стяжки следует крепить как к внешней, так и к внутренней стороне дома

Одной из самых серьезных и вероятных причин повреждений венцов дома — проблемы с гидроизоляцией: если она пропускает влагу, то дерево неизбежно начинает гнить. Если данную проблему вы сумели обнаружить вовремя, то можно будет обойтись без тотальной замены венцов. Сначала тщательно просушите дефектные зоны, затем обработайте их специализированными защитными составами, после чего полностью замените имеющийся гидроизоляционный слой. Лучше один раз решить проблему глобально, чем постоянно тратить время и деньги на бесконечный ремонт.

Если же обнаруженные вами поврежденные фрагменты занимают довольно большую площадь, то у вас есть четыре основных вариантов действий:

1. Локальная (частичная) замена венцов

Данный метод, к сожалению, можно рассматривать только как временный. Он предполагает, что вы удаляете только одно бревно, а вместо него ставите другое, предварительно обработанное средствами защиты.

2. Переустановка строения путем полного его разбора

Чтобы использовать этот метод, строение должно быть нежилым. Как правило, замене подлежат не только сами венцы, но и другие важные деревянные детали дома.

3. «Домкратный» способ

Домкратный способ ремонта помогает не только провести замену закладных, но и совершить различные реставрационные действия по отношению к фундаменту: частично его отремонтировать, выполнить гидроизоляцию и даже поднять его. Можно применять на фундаментах сплошного и ленточного типа.

4. Метод замены деревянных венцов кирпичной кладкой

Этот способ ремонта хорош тем, что позволяет провести как фрагментарную , так и полную замену всех венцов.

Ремонт венцов загородного дома: 4 основных способа
Одним из самых страшных врагов древесины считается влага

Существует еще один метод, при котором используют специальные подвесы из металла. Он не снискал популярности среди обывателей в связи со своей высокой стоимостью. Здесь необходимо применение спецтехники, а также изготовление сложной во всех отношениях конструкции для правильного подвеса строения.

Если вы всё же хотите провести частичную замену венцов, без установки новых бревен, то алгоритм действий выглядит следующим образом: берется специальный инструмент (например, стамеска), которым зачищается периметр вокруг зоны повреждений. Таким образом, вы сможете понять, насколько глубоко «сидит» проблема. Следующим шагом становится крепление деревянных стяжек, как с внешней, так и с внутренней стороны строения: для этого от дефектной области отступают влево и вправо ориентировочно по 450-470 мм. Фиксация происходит на высоту в два с половиной или три бревна. Затем берется лобзик (или бензопила), которым осторожно вырезают проблемный фрагмент дерева, а на его месте устанавливают точно подходящую по размерам вставку (по методу шип-паз). Фиксация вставки осуществляется нагелями. Не забудьте про дополнительные работы: древесину обязательно следует пропитать водонепроницаемыми составами, а все имеющиеся щели — тщательно законопатить.

Источник: pro-n.ru

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